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Regional Politics and Policies in the Special Collections and Archives Research Center

The Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1990 (H.R. 2788)

Passed into law on October 23, 1989, H.R. 2788 designated appropriations for the Department of the Interior and related agencies for the 1990 fiscal year (ending on September 30, 1990), and, 

"Appropriates funds for: (1) the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for resource management, construction, anadromous fish, land acquisition, and the National Wilding Refuge Fund; (2) the National Park Service for the operation of the National Park System (including the National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property), recreation and preservation programs, the Historic Preservation Fund, construction, land acquisition, and State assistance (including acquisition of the Saxton House in Canton, Ohio), the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor Commission; (3) the Geological Survey for surveys, investigations, and research; (4) the Minerals Management Service for leasing and royalty management; (5) the Bureau of Mines for the conduct of inquiries, technological investigations, and research of mines and minerals; (6) the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement for regulation and technology, and the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund; (7) the Bureau of Indian Affairs for the operation of Indian programs, construction, miscellaneous payments, and the Indian Loan Guaranty and Insurance Fund, the Navajo Rehabilitation Trust Fund, and miscellaneous trust funds; (8) the Office of Territorial and International Affairs for administration, for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and for the Compact of Free Associations; and (9) the Secretarial offices, including the office of the Solicitor for salaries and expenses, the Office of Construction Management, the Office of the Inspector General and the National Indian Gaming Commission."

Particularly noteworthy and controversial was the inclusion of Section 318 in the Act, which accounted for the Funds appropriated from the Act, and included language to protect the Northern Spotted Owl:

"all timber sales from the thirteen national forests in Oregon and Washington known to contain northern spotted owls prepared or offered pursuant to this section shall minimize fragmentation of the most ecologically significant old growth forest stands...(2) To the extent that fragmentation of ecologically significant old growth forest stands is necessary to meet the timber sale levels directed by subsection (a)(1) of this section, the Forest Service shall minimize such fragmentation of ecologically significant old growth forest stands on a national forest-by-national forest basis based on the Forest Service's discretion in determining the ecologically significant stands after considering input from the advisory boards created pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. The habitat of nesting pairs of spotted owls which are not in the Spotted Owl Habitat Areas (SOHAs) described in subsection (b)(3) of this section shall be considered an important factor in the identification of ecologically significant old growth forest stands."

"Without passing on the legal and factual adequacy of the Final Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement for an Amendment to the Pacific Northwest Regional Guide - Spotted Owl guidelines and the accompanying Record of Decision issued by the Forest Service on December 8, 1988 or the December 22, 1987 agreement between the Bureau of Land Management and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife for management of the spotted owl, the Congress hereby determines and directs that management of areas according to subsections (b)(3) and (b)(5) of this section on the thirteen national forests in Oregon and Washington and Bureau of Lean Management lands in western Oregon known to contain northern spotted owls is adequate consideration for the purpose of meeting the statutory requirements that are the basis for the consolidated cases captioned Seattle Audubon Society et. al. v. F. Dale Robertson, Civil No. 89-99 (order granting preliminary injunction) and the case Portland Audubon Society et al., v. Manuel Lujan, Jr., Civil No. 87-1160-FR. The guidelines adopted by subsections (b)(3) and (b)(5) of this section shall not be subject to judicial review by any court of the United States."

Archival Materials

The full text of the Act, as well as summaries, a list of actions taken, and amendments, can be found with the Library of Congress (at www.congress.gov)

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where the Interior and Related Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1990 (H.R. 2788) is mentioned. 

Other institutions also hold collections that document the Northern Spotted Owl controversy and the Interior Appropriations Act

  • The Brock Adams Papers, held by the University of Washington, detail his political career in the Senate and the House, and include his involvement with the Interior Appropriations Act of 1991 and the broader northern spotted owl controversy. 

  • The Thomas S. Foley Congressional Papers, held by Washington State University, detail Foley's political career in the U.S. House of Representatives and includes information about the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

Additionally, a search for "Northern Spotted Owl" Oregon Digital yields several results, most of them photographs. 

The Endangered Species Act (1973)

The Endangered Species Act is a landmark law and the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species from extinction, servingblack and white photo of a northern spotted owl to both prevent species extinction and to recover species to where the law's protections are no longer needed. Several laws came before the Endangered Species Act and have since been replaced or have fallen under the jurisdiction of the ESA. The Lacey Act of 1900 prohibited commercial hunting and interstate trade of particular species of plants and animals. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 protected migratory birds that flew between the U.S. and Canada, prohibiting the hunting, capturing, killing, and selling of those birds. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 protected the Bald and Golden Eagles by prohibiting the taking of these birds. Then, in 1966, the Endangered Species Preservation Act was passed, which mandated a federal list of endangered animals and prohibited the taking of those animals on national wildlife refuges and, notably, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was authorized to acquire a limited amount of private land for the protection of the listed species. Congress then modified this law in 1969 to prohibit importing and selling animals that were facing worldwide extinction. The Marine Mammal Protection Act was passed into law in 1972, which prohibited the taking of certain marine and marine-adjacent animals inhabiting the waters of the U.S. and assigned responsibility for all listed marine species to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Then, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was passed. Following this, there were a series of amendments to the original Act. The 1978 amendment allowed federal agencies to take actions that have the potential to jeopardize a listed species if the action is approved by a federal committee. This amendment also mandated that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designate any protected critical habitat whenever a species is listed as endangered. The 1982 Amendment prohibited the removal of endangered plants from federal land, as well as alter some of the listing requirements. It also introduced "incidental take permits", which allows for people to engage in illegal activity around listed species without penalty, so long as a "habitat conservation plan" is appended to the application. In 1988, an amendment was passed that required the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to monitor all recovered species and all candidate species and allowed the service to place species on the federal list as an "emergency listing". The 2004 amendment was minor -- it exempted the U.S. Department of Defense from designating critical habitats so long as an approved natural resources management plan was in place.

Archival Materials

The full text of the Act, as enshrined in U.S. Public Law, can be found with the U.S. Publishing Office

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections relating to and mentioning the Endangered Species Act. 

A search for "Endangered Species Act" on Oregon Digital yields several results, many of them mentions of the Act in university periodicals. 

Outside of SCARC, other institutions also hold collections relating to the Endangered Species Act as it relates to the Northern Spotted Owl controversy:

  • The Brock Evans Papers and Oral History Interview, held by University of Washington Libraries, details the activist's involvement in the spotted owl controversy in Washington. 

  • The North Cascades Conservation Council Records, held by the University of Washington Libraries, details the actions of the conservation group that spearheaded the development of the North Cascades National Park in Washington and includes information about the Endangered Species Act and the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

  • The Brock Adams Papers, held by the University of Washington, detail his political career in the Senate and the House, and include Washington-specific information regarding the broader northern spotted owl controversy. 

  • The Thomas S. Foley Congressional Papers, held by Washington State University, detail Foley's political career in the U.S. House of Representatives and includes information about the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

National Environmental Protection Act (42 U.S.C. § 4321)

The National Environmental Protection Act, signed into law in 1970, responded to the marked environmental impact that progress had caused within the country. The NEPA was among the myriad environmental policies passed in the 1970s in response to environmental degradation at the hands of the federal government, among other industries. Most notably, the Act established the Council on Environmental Quality within the executive cabinet with the responsibility of advising the president on environmental matters and aid them in the drafting of an annual report on the progress of NEPA implementation across federal agencies. Importantly, the Act also requires all federal agencies to weigh environmental factors equally with other factors in their decision-making processes. As implemented, the NEPA requires a project to need the standards of the Act when a federal agency provides any amount of financial support to the project. 

Archival Materials

The full text of the Act, as enshrined in public law, can be found with the U.S. Publishing Office. 

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where the National Environmental Protection Act is mentioned. 

Outside of SCARC, a number of other institutions hold collections making mention of the National Environmental Protection Act:

In addition, a search for "National Environmental Protection Act" and "NEPA" yield some results, many of them coverage of the law in university periodicals, as well as some digitized research involving the Act. 

Z'Berg-Nejedly Forest Practice Act of 1973

forest service employees standing next to downed logsAdopted in 1974, the Z'berg-Nejedly Forest Practice Act outlines the importance of forest resources and timberlands, stating that they are, "among the most valuable of the natural resources of the state and that there is great concern throughout the state relating to their utilization, restoration, and protection." Because of this value, the Legislature,

"thus declares that it is the policy of the state to encourage prudent and responsible forest resource management calculated to serve the public's need for timber and other forest products, while giving consideration to the public's need for watershed protection, fisheries and wildlife, sequestration of carbon dioxide, and recreational opportunities alike in this and future generations"

and allows for regulation of forests by means of

"soil erosion control, protection of stream character and water quality, flood control, stand density control, reforestation methods, mass soil movements, submission of timber harvesting plans, location and grade of roads and skid trails, excavation and fill requirements, slash and debris disposal, haul routes and schedules, hours and dates of logging, and performance bond requirements." 

Archival Materials

The full text of the Act can be found with California Legislative Information (www.leginfo.legislature.ca.gov). 

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where the Z'berg-Nejedly Forest Practice Act is mentioned. 

H.R. 1645: A Bill to Permit Sales and Related Activities on National Forest Service Lands During the 5 Year Period of Study on the Status of the Northern Spotted Owl

Introduced in 1989, H.R. 1645 was drafted to permit timber sales and related activities on National Forest System lands during a 5-year period of study of the status of the Northern Spotted Owl. The resolution proposed that,

"in order to protected the communities dependent on the supply of Federal timber from a premature decision on the status of the spotted owl and to allow sufficient time to collect reliable data on the threatened or endangered status of the spotted owl, during the 5-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, section 7(a)(2) of the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1536(a)(2)) shall not apply with respect to the spotted owl to any timber sale (including its preparation and advertisement, construction of related roads, and other related activities) on National Forest System lands."

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.R.1645 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. The Spotted Owl Management, Policy, and Research Collection may also include information about H.R. 1645.

Outside of SCARC, there are collections held by other institutions that may make mention of House Resolution 1645:

  • The Sierra Club, Northwest Office Records and the Washington Environmental Council Records are held by the University of Washington and both detail the organizational involvement in the Northern Spotted Owl Controversy.

  • The Brock Adams Papers, held by the University of Washington, detail his political career in the Senate and the House, and include Washington-specific information regarding the broader northern spotted owl controversy. 

  • The Thomas S. Foley Congressional Papers, held by Washington State University, detail Foley's political career in the U.S. House of Representatives and includes information about the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

In addition, the full text of the Resolution, as well as a summary and a list of actions, is kept with the Library of Congress (www.congress.gov). 

Forests and Families Protection Act of 1991 (H.R. 2463)

Introduced in the House in 1991, the Forests and Families Protection Act of 1991 would have

"provided for the establishment of a long-term Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Forest Service (FS) program to protect old growth forest, the Northern Spotted Owl, and other old growth associated species on areas of ecologically-significant old growth forest on State and Federal lands Oregon, Washington, and Northern California selected for the Old Growth Forest Reserve to be established by the Secretaries of Agriculture and the Interior under this Act."

black and white photo of a stand of treesIt would have amended the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 in order to "provide additional guidance on the implementation, amendment, and revision of plans for Federal lands necessary to ensure the effectiveness of Federal land planning and that the applicable forest plans." If passed, the Resolution would have directed the Secretaries of Agriculture and the Interior to establish an Old Growth Research Program, restrict timber sales, road construction, and mineral leasing within a certain radius of a Northern Spotted Owl nest site, required environmental impact statements and appropriate consultation on timber harvested from Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands, required the publishing of harvesting guidelines in the federal registered, and would have provided to judicial review of agency decisions. The Resolution was not signed into law. 

Archival Materials

The full text of the Resolution, as well as summaries and a list of actions taken, is kept by the Library of Congress (www.congress.gov). 

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where the Forests and Families Protection Act of 1991 is mentioned. 

Outside of SCARC, there are collections held by other institutions that may make mention of H.R. 2463:

  • The Sierra Club, Northwest Office Records and the Washington Environmental Council Records are held by the University of Washington and both detail the organizational involvement in the Northern Spotted Owl Controversy.

  • The Brock Adams Papers, held by the University of Washington, detail his political career in the Senate and the House, and include Washington-specific information regarding the broader northern spotted owl controversy. 

  • The Thomas S. Foley Congressional Papers, held by Washington State University, detail Foley's political career in the U.S. House of Representatives and includes information about the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

H.R. 5116: To Require the Development and Consideration of Alternatives for the Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl, and for Other Purposes

Introduced in 1990, H.R. 5116 would have directed

"the Secretaries of Agriculture and of the Interior, acting through the Chief of the Forest Service and the Director of the Bureau of Land Management, respectively, to prepare plans for timber sales on lands containing Northern Spotted Owl populations in an attempt to achieve timber sale levels greater than those available under a strict application of the report of the Interagency Scientific Committee to Address the Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl."

The Resolution would have authorized appropriations to the agencies and sub-agencies involved, and would have required that such timber sales plans would contain certain alternatives for compliance with Owl conservation "in a manner minimizing employment disruption in public timber-dependent communities." The Resolution was not signed into law.  

Archival Materials

The full text of the Resolution, as well as summaries and a list of actions taken, is kept by the Library of Congress (www.congress.gov)

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where H.R. 5116 is mentioned. 

Outside of SCARC, there are collections held by other institutions that may make mention of H.R. 2463:

  • The Sierra Club, Northwest Office Records and the Washington Environmental Council Records are held by the University of Washington and both detail the organizational involvement in the Northern Spotted Owl Controversy.

  • The Brock Adams Papers, held by the University of Washington, detail his political career in the Senate and the House, and include Washington-specific information regarding the broader northern spotted owl controversy. 

  • The Thomas S. Foley Congressional Papers, held by Washington State University, detail Foley's political career in the U.S. House of Representatives and includes information about the Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

H.B. 2419: To Establish the Oregon Forest Resources Institute (1991)

a forest service employee stands amongst a young stand of treesPassed in 1991, House Bill 2419 established the Oregon Forest Resources Institute and provided appropriations to the agency. The Institute was created with the intention of increasing public understanding of the practice of forestry, supporting education and cooperative efforts to practice good stewardship of the land, encourage the conversion of underproductive rural lands to forest uses, the assist private forest landowners in meeting state and federal forest operation regulations, and conduct research into wood utilization and secondary wood products manufacturing. The Bill provided that the Institute is to be governed by a board of directors, elected by producers (those who are involved in the growing, harvesting, or producing of timber or timber products). The State Forester is responsible for overseeing the election of the board, and solicits nominations for positions on the board. There are four identified board position categories; one member who is a producer of 50 million board feet per year or less to be elected from each forest region; one member who is a producer of more than 50 million board feet per year, but less than 150 million board feet per year, to be elected from each forest region; one member who is a producer of 150 million or more board feet per year, tot be elected from each forest region; and one member who owns between 100 and 2,000 acres of forestland and who has no direct financial interest in any forest products processing activity, to be elected statewide. The Institute is funded in large part by a dedicated forest products harvest tax. 

Archival Materials

The full text of the Bill, some amendments, and actions can be found with the Oregon Secretary of State. In addition, a bill tracing (including committee hearings, amendments, and financial impact statements) has also been created by the Oregon Secretary of State. 

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where H.B. 2419 is mentioned. 

In addition, a search for "Oregon Forest Resources Institute" on Oregon Digital yields several results, many of them mentions of the organization in university periodicals. 

H.R. 1149: Oregon Wilderness Act of 1984

Passed and signed into law in 1984, the H.R.1149 (the Oregon Wilderness Bill of 1984) was enacted, "to designate certain national forest system and other lands in the State of Oregon for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System, and for other purposes." The specific lands within the state that were set aside by the law include:

  • The Salmon-Huckleberry Wilderness, the Drift Creek Wilderness, the Rock Creek Wilderness, and the Cummins Creek Wilderness in the Siuslaw National Forest
  • The Columbia Wilderness and the Badger Creek Wilderness in the Mount Hood National Forest; and the Bull of the Woods Wilderness in the Mount Hood and Willamette National Forests
  • The Boulder Creek Wilderness in the Umpqua National Forest; and the Rogue-Umpqua Divide Wilderness in the Umpqua and Rogue River National Forests
  • The Waldo Lake Wilderness, the Menagerie Wilderness, and the Middle Santiam Wilderness in the Willamette National Forest; and the Mount Jefferson Wilderness Additions in the Willamette and Mount Hood National Forests
  • The Grassy Knob Wilderness and the Red Buttes Wilderness in the Siskiyou National Forest
  • The Sky Lakes Wilderness in the Rogue River and Winema National Forests
  • The Bridge Creek Wilderness, the Mill Creek Wilderness, and the Black Canyon Wilderness in the Ochoco National Forest
  • The Eagle Cap Wilderness Additions and the Hells Canyon Wilderness Additions in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest; and the North Fork John Day Wilderness in the Wallowa-Whitman, Malheur, and Umatilla National Forests, the Monument Rock Wilderness in the Malheur and Wallowa-Whitman National Forest
  • The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness Additions in the Malheur National Forest
  • The North Fork Umatilla Wilderness in the Umatilla National Forest
  • the Table Rock Wilderness in the Salem District of the Bureau of Land Management
  • The Mount Washington Wilderness Additions and the Three Sisters Wilderness Additions in the Willamette and Deschutes National Forests
  • The Gearhart Mountain Wilderness Additions in the Fremont National Forest.

In addition, the bill also established the Oregon Cascades Recreation Area in the Umpqua, Willamette, Winema, and Deschutes National Forests, designated the Mount Thielsen Wilderness and the Diamond Peak Wilderness Additions in the Umpqua, Willamette, Winema, and Deschutes National Forests as components of the National Wilderness Preservation System, and provided that the RARE II Final Environmental Statement not be subject to judicial review as it relates to national forest system lands in Oregon, releasing national forest system lands from further review by the Department of Agriculture. 

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.R.1149 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. 

Outside of SCARC, other institutions hold collections that make mention of the Oregon Wilderness Act:

The bill text in its entirety, as well as a list of bill actions, amendments, and summaries, is kept with the Library of Congress (www.congress.gov)

Oregon House Bill 3274 (1993)

Introduced in 1993, H.B. 3274 would have required the State Fish and Wildlife Commission to determine economic impacts and conclude that action is necessary prior to designating a species as threatened or endangered. The bill would have amended existing ORS 496.138 to read:

"496.138. (1) The commission has the authority to formulate and implement the policies and programs of this state for the management of wildlife, and may perform all acts necessary to administer and carry out the provisions of the wildlife laws. 

(2)With respect to the designation of a species as a threatened species or an endangered species, the commission shall perform its duties in the manner it determines will have the least intrusive impact upon the people, industries and communities of this state, and shall take action only after it has:

(a) Weighed the economic consequences of its proposed action; and

(b) Concluded that the need for the action significantly outweighs the economic consequences. 

(3) In accordance with any applicable provision of ORS 183.310 to 183.550, the commission may promulgate rules to carry out the provisions of the wildlife laws."

In addition, the Bill would have added a requirement that, prior to the listing of any species, the commission

"shall prepare and submit to the Legislative Assembly...a report (a) identifying the number of direct and indirect jobs which could reasonably be expected to be lost by the restrictions imposed by the proposed listing and identifying other short term and long term economics impacts on the industries, local government units, schools and the people in all areas affected by the listing; and (b) stating the conclusion of the commission that the need for the listing and the cultural, scientific or commercial significance of the species significantly outweigh the economic consequences and other impacts upon people which will result from the listing" 

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.B.3274 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. The Spotted Owl Management, Policy, and Research Collection may also include information about H.B. 3274.

Committee hearings and public comment on the bill can be found in the 1993 session records held by the Secretary of State. The House Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Agriculture and Forestry discusses H.B. 3274 on during the April 7, 1993 subcommittee hearing, the March 26, 1993 subcommittee hearing, as well as a February 17, 1993 hearing involving a presentation by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Agriculture, and Northwest Forestry Association officials where the listing process for the northern spotted owl occurred. 

Oregon House Bill 3128 (1993)

a bulldozer working in a stand of treesIntroduced in 1993, H.B. 3128 would have created a private property owner compensation program for those affected by local and state government regulatory actions, including the imposition of passage rights, the designation of land for acquisition, the restriction of grazing or farm improvements, the restriction of removal of timber or mineral resources from the land, or the regulation of aesthetic values. This bill arose in response to a constitutional discrepancy that identified the takings clause as too narrowly defined:

"The US and Oregon Constitutions currently provide for government compensation of private property owners when a government action results in a 'taking.' A taking occurs when, as a result of government action, the property owner is precluded from all economically feasible private use of the property. No constitutional or other statutory provision allows for compensation for partial loss of economic use of property."

The bill also would have placed the burden of proof on the regulating entity, should compensation be denied. 

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.B.3128 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. The Spotted Owl Management, Policy, and Research Collection may also include information about H.B. 3128.

Committee hearings and public comment on the bill can be found in the 1993 session records held by the Secretary of State. The House Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Agriculture and Forestry discusses H.B. 3128 during a March 19, 1993 subcommittee hearing and an April 9, 1993 subcommittee hearing, as well as as well as a February 17, 1993 hearing involving a presentation by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Agriculture, and Northwest Forestry Association officials where the listing process for the northern spotted owl occurred. 

Oregon House Bill 2924 (1993)

Introduced in 1993, H.B. 2924 would have removed the northern spotted owl from the threatened species list maintained by the State Fish and Wildlife Commission immediately upon its passage, and would have only authorized that the species be relisted "upon compliance with rulemaking procedure". The Bill read in full:

"Relating to the northern spotted owl; and declaring an emergency.

Be It Enacted by the People of the State of Oregon:

Section 1: Section 2 of this Act is added to and made a part of ORS 496.172 to 496.182. 

Section 2: Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, on the effective date of this section, the northern spotted owl (strix occidentalis) is removed from the list maintained by the commission pursuant to ORS 496.172 and may be added to the list only in compliance with the procedure provided in ORS 496.176 (5) for which notice and public hearing are provided

Section 3: This Act being necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety, an emergency is declared to exist, and this Act takes effect on its passage."

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.B.2924 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. The Spotted Owl Management, Policy, and Research Collection may also include information about H.B. 2924.

Committee hearings and public comment on the bill can be found in the 1993 session records held by the Secretary of State. The House Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Agriculture and Forestry discusses H.B. 2924 during the April 7, 1993 subcommittee hearing, the March 26, 1993 subcommittee hearing, and the April 14, 1993 subcommittee meeting.

Oregon Senate Bill 1125 (1991)

Introduced in 1991, Senate Bill 1125 alters and modifies the provisions of the Oregon Forest Practices Act. Most notably, the Bill sets:

  • certain limits on contiguous clearcutting prior to reforestation,
  • directs the Board of Forestry to review its current riparian protection rules, and designate a minimum of three stream classes,
  • requires the Board of Forestry to establish best water quality practices (altering the relationship between the Department of Environmental Quality and the Department of Forestry),
  • requires the Board of Forestry to adopt rules for wildlife habitat in riparian and upland areas,
  • requires that reforestation commence within 12 months and be completed prior to the end of second planting season
  • adds to the existing written plan requirement, requiring that plans be prepared for clearcutting that exceed the limit set by the board, for high risk sites, for the cutting of immature timber, among requirements at the discretion of the board, and extending the review period from 14 to 30 days. 
  • tightens requirements on landowners wishing to convert forest land to non-forest uses
  • provides authority to the State Forester to condition approval of written plans, and limit the timing, rate, and extent of harvesting to bring plans into compliance with the law

It was passed into law, with some amendments, including an increase to the temporary forest products harvest tax by 13 cents per thousand board feet, in effect from 1991 until 1993. 

  • creates a scenic highway system, and requiring regulations for harvest in "visually sensitive corridors" 
  • requiring the conduct of studies monitoring the effectiveness of forest practice rules, harvest rate, evaluating the best management practices on certain forest resources, and evaluating the existing information on the native Pacific Yew. 
  • increasing the fee for slash burning from $1.50 to $5 per acre, providing that after 1996, slash burning be limited to fire prevention purposes

Archival Materials

The bill full text, summaries, actions, and amendments can be found with the Oregon Secretary of State. A Listing of Legislative Records in the Oregon State Archives pertaining to Senate Bill 1125, 1991 - relating to forest practices can also be found with the Secretary of State. 

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds several collections that make mention of the Northern Spotted Owl political controversy, where S.B. 1125 is mentioned. 

Oregon House Bill 3491 (1989)

a pair of northern spotted owls sitting on a tree branchIntroduced in 1989, H.B. 3491 would have established a law to pay a bounty for the live Northern Spotted Owl capture and release into wilderness areas and to keep timber harvest at the same levels. It would have added to ORS chapter 496 the following language:

"(1) Notwithstanding ORS 496.172 to 496.192 or ORS 527.610 to 527.730, or any rule adopted pursuant thereto, the listing of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) as a threatened species pursuant to ORS 496.172 to 496.192 shall not result in the reduction of the amount of timber available for harvest on nonfederal land in this state for a period that ends five years from the effective date of this section or on the date of adoption by the Federal Government of a recovery plan for the northern spotted owl, whichever event first occurs. 

(2) The department shall contract for services to inventory the population of the northern spotted owl on nonfederal lands in this state. The inventory shall include the number, location and habitat characteristics of the northern spotted owl. The inventory shall be conducted and coordinated in a manner consistent with federal agency inventories. The inventory shall be completed by September 1, 1990, and a report thereof shall be submitted to those interim committees or task forces of the Legislative Assembly that have been assigned responsibility for forestry and for wildlife matters."

Archival Materials

The Special Collections and Archives Research Center holds the Liz VanLeeuwen Spotted Owl Collection, which includes several items in opposition to H.B.3491 and also includes substantial information about the general Northern Spotted Owl controversy. The Spotted Owl Management, Policy, and Research Collection may also include information about H.B. 3491.