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WAYS TO LEARN ABOUT BEER CULTURE AND SOCIETY
THE CHURCH AND BREWING
Things to know
- The church had a significant impact on brewing as a religious and commercial enterprise.
- There are different types of monastic brewing. Try searching using these terms:
- Trappist monks
- Cistercian monks
- Benedictine monks
- Abbey beer
- Belgian beer
- Monastic brewing
- Saint Gall monastery
- International Trappist Association
- Monastery brewery
- Monks and hops
- There are several articles in the Oxford Companion to beer about monks and brewing.
- For context, there are several Wikipedia articles.
- Jay R. Brooks has a list of Beer Saints on his by Brookston Beer Bulletin blog. There is both an alphabetical list and a list by feast day.
- There is a Benedictine Brewery at the Mount Angel Abbey in Oregon.
- There is a brewery in North Carolina called Four Saints Brewing, named after 4 patron saints of beer.
- Abbott, Marshall. "Brewing In the Medieval Period - How Beer and Ale Developed Into a Commercial Industry." BA, 2018, Oregon State University.
- Almond, Cuthbert. 1903. The History of Ampleforth Abbey from the foundation of St. Lawrence's at Dieulouard to the present time ... With many illustrations. R. & T. Washbourne: London; Benziger Bros.: New York.
- Note, chapter 18 is "A Famous Brewery."
- Barnes, Christopher. “The Brewing Monks: A Brief History of the Trappist Order and Monastic Brewing.” I Think About Beer, August 17, 2017.
- Note: this is a multipart blog series.
- Bennett, Judith M. 1999. Ale, beer and brewsters in England: women's work in a changing world, 1300-1600. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Dornbusch, Horst. 1997. Prost! the story of German beer. Boulder: Siris Books.
- Hibbs, Daniel. "To Gladden the Heart: Brewing and the Monastic Tradition." PhD, 2018, Baylor University.
- Hieronymus, Stan. 2005. Brew like a monk: Trappist, abbey, and strong Belgian ales and how to brew them. Boulder, Colo: Brewers Publications.
- Hornsey, Ian S. 2003. A history of beer and brewing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Jackson, Michael, and Michael Jackson. 2008. Michael Jackson's great beers of Belgium. Boulder, Colo: Brewers Publications.
- Jonveaux, Isabelle. "Belgian Beer and Monastic Imagery." Ethnologie française 41 (2011): 1.
- Kline, Omer U. 2000. The Saint Vincent Archabbey gristmill and brewery, 1854-2000: an historical narrative. Latrobe, PA: Saint Vincent Archabbey.
- Lamendola, Lauren. "Trouble Brewing at St. Vincent." Western Pennsylvania History: 1918-2018 (2010).
- Louviere, Benjamin. "Beer and Spirit: A Confluence of Medieval Traditions in Brewing and Monasticism." BA, University of Iowa, 2020.
- Nelson, Max. 2018. "Celtic and Egyptian beer-production traditions and the origins of Western European monastic brewing". Journal of Medieval Monastic Studies. 7: 47-77.
- Nelson, Max. 2005. The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. London: Routledge.
- Oetgen, Jerome. 2000. Mission to America: a history of Saint Vincent Archabbey, the first Benedictine monastery in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
- Phillips, Noëlle. 2019. Craft beer culture and modern medievalism: brewing dissent. Leeds: Arc Humanities Press.
- Protz, Roger. 2011. The story of brewing in Burton-on-Trent. Stroud: History Press.
- Rajotte, Pierre. 1992. Belgian ale. Boulder, Colo: Brewers Publications.
- Slavin, Philip. 2012. Bread and ale for the brethren: the provisioning of Norwich Cathedral Priory, 1260-1536. Hertfordshire, UK: University of Hertfordshire Press.
- Spangenberg, Lisa L. Saint Patrick, Saint Bridget, and the Brewing of Beer, Digital Medievalist, March 15, 2019
- Staudt, R. Jared. 2018. The beer option: brewing a Catholic culture, yesterday & today. Brooklyn: Angelico Press.
- Strickland, Joseph Wayne. "Beer, Barbarism, and the Church from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages." MA, History, 2007, University of Tennessee – Knoxville.
- Unger, Richard W. 2007. Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Van den Steen, Jef, Andrew Verschetze, and Michael Lomax. 2018. Belgian Trappist and abbey beers: truly divine. Tielt: Lannoo.
- Van den Steen, Jef, and Philippe De Beerst. 2003. Les trappistes: les abbayes et leurs bières. Tielt (Belgique): Lannoo.
- Wallace, Caroline, Sarah Wood, and Jessica Deahl. 2017. Trappist beer travels: inside the breweries of the monasteries. Atglen: Schiffer Publishers.
- Yenne, Bill. 2007. Guinness: the 250-year quest for the perfect pint. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons.
- Zettler, Alfons. "Spaces for servants and provendarii in Early Medieval Monasteries. The example of the virtual monastery on the Plan of Saint Gall." Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre| BUCEMA Hors-série n° 8 (2015).
There are many ways to think about Germans and brewing. Research topics might include migration and immigration patterns, the role of German brewers as community activists, the total number of German brewers versus brewers with other countries of origin, the impact of wars in Europe on migration, differences in training and education, and the impact of language.
Archival collections and materials
Beer to Stay: Brewed Culture, Ethnicity, and the Market Revolution
Dr. Brian Alberts dissertation for Purdue University Department of History, May 2018. This project examines how German immigrants used beer production and consumption to negotiate the terms of American citizenship in mid-nineteenth century Chicago and Cincinnati. It also investigates how beer was, in turn, used against those immigrants by nativist and temperance organizations. A German-led proliferation of lager beer transformed and expanded the brewing industry after the 1840s. In the economically and culturally transformative context of the market revolution, lager beer constituted a transnationally constructed immigrant product. Through beer, German purveyors (and drinkers) employed their ethnocultural worldview to exert agency over the terms of inclusion in American society. Their effort was contested, violently in the case of Chicago’s Lager Beer Riot of 1855, by nativist and temperance reformers who were themselves products of the ongoing changes in the American economy. Alberts argues that brewing gave transatlantic immigrants significant but controversial agency in the nation’s steady march toward industrialized capitalism.
Things to know
Drinking establishments are governed by both culture and the legal system.
- A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, and historically, where travelers receive lodging. An inn is a tavern that has a license to put up guests as lodgers.
- A German beer garden is an outdoor area where beer and local food is served and entertainment (music, song, games) is shared to create an atmosphere of Gemütlichkeit (good cheer).
- A saloon is a historical style of American bar and is most often associated with the "Old West" for the decades between 1840 and 1910.
- A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. A brewpub is a combination of a brewery and bar, where the beer comes directly from the brewery. An establishment can only be designated a brewpub if more than 25% of the beer is sold on-site.
- In the United Kingdom, the British Beer and Pub Association and the Scottish Beer & Pub Association focus on issues that matter to the beer and pub industry, including campaigning against the increases to beer taxes that are damaging to community pubs.
- Gray, Barry, John Savage, and A. F. J. Brown. 1866. Ale in prose and verse. New York: Russell's American steam printing House.
- Lewis, Michael. "Access to Saloons, Wet Voter Turnout, and Statewide Prohibition Referenda, 1907–1919." Social Science History 32, no. 3 (2008): 373-404.
- Ocejo, Richard E. Upscaling Downtown : From Bowery Saloons to Cocktail Bars in New York City. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
- Powers, Madelon. 1999. Faces along the bar: lore and order in the workingman's saloon, 1870-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Sismondo, Christine. 2014. America walks into a bar: a spirited history of taverns and saloons, speakeasies and grog shops. New York: Oxford University Press.
Google Scholar: links to search results pages
ADVERTISING AND BREWERIANA
Looking for information about advertising and breweriana (e.g. physical items like beer cans, bottles, bottle openers, labels, tin signs, beer mats, beer trays or taps, wooden cases and neon signs)?
Things to know
- There are many online websites for organizations dedicated to this type of collecting, including Morean Breweriana, National Association Breweriana Advertising, Brewery Collectables Club of America (includes a list of links to other clubs and resources).
- Newspapers are an excellent source for finding and examining historical beer and brewing advertisements. Searching digitized newspaper collections for "beer," "brewery," or other iterations and combinations of similar terms will often result in advertisements for specific breweries from the past. Chronicling America (a Library of Congress hosted, digitized collection) offers national U.S. papers, while Historic Oregon Newspapers focuses on publications from the state.
- The New York TimesMachine, the New York Times' digitized archive of full issues from 1851 through 2002, allows users to both search and browse all issues from the publication. While advertisements will not be returned through searches, a browse through issues from a particular year or time period will show advertisements for beer, breweries, and more, although the process will be more involved than a full-text search. Information on creating and logging into the Times online can be found here.
Recommended archival collections at OSU
- American breweriana journal : official publication of the American Breweriana Association, Inc.
- Anderson, Will. 1973. The Beer Book; an Illustrated Guide to American Breweriana. Princeton: Pyne Press.
- Baley, George. 2003. Vintage beer tap markers: ball knobs, 1930s-1950s. Atglen, Pa: Schiffer Pub.
- Baley, George. 2002. Back bar beer figurines. Atglen, PA: Schiffer.
- Bull, Donald, and John R. Stanley. 2014. Advertising openers. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd.
- Fahey, David M. "Old-Time Breweries: Academic and Breweriana Historians." Ohio History 116, no. 1 (2009): 101-21.
- Kappele, Amanda E. "A study of advertising: The role of gender representations on craft beer labels." MA, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2015.
- Kious, Kevin, and Donald Roussin. 2012. Breweriana: American beer collectibles. Oxford: Shire.
- Maxwell, D. B. S. "Beer cans: A guide for the archaeologist." Historical archaeology 27, no. 1 (1993): 95-113.
- Museum of Beer and Brewing. 2000. Brewing history news. Milwaukee, WI: Museum of Beer and Brewing.
- Rickards, Maurice. The encyclopedia of ephemera: a guide to the fragmentary documents of everyday life for the collector, curator, and historian. Psychology Press, 2000.
- Wilson, Keith. 1985. Commemorative breweriana. Northampton: Brewtique.
Google Scholar: links to search results pages
BEER AND BREWING IN SPORTS, NOTABLY BASEBALL
Things to know
- Search Terms: (with the preface of beer, brewing, brewery, etc.), often in combination with each other:
- Markets (Regional, Local, National)
- The Milwaukee Brewers—Major League Baseball Team—are obviously a potential place to start, although they were founded in 1969 and only began playing in Milwaukee in 1970. The Braves were previously located in Milwaukee, and I believe there is a story of their coming-to and eventually leaving the city that is tied to Miller Brewing or its owner.
- Several professional team owners in the early twentieth century also owned breweries. For example, the Hoffbergers owned both the Orioles and National Brewing in Baltimore (see recommended publications) and Jacob Ruppert Jr. was a prominent regional brewer who also owned the New York Yankees.
RACE AND INCLUSION
Things to know
- Chapman, Nathaniel, and David L. Brunsma. 2020. Beer and racism: how beer became White, why it matters, and the movements to change it. Bristol: Bristol University Press.
- Chapman, Nathaniel G., J. Slade Lellock, and Cameron D. Lippard. 2017. Untapped: exploring the cultural dimensions of the craft beer. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.
- Cook, Dom. 2019. This ain't the beer that you're used to: a beginner's guide to good beer. Portland: Broken World Publishing.
- Deetz, Kelley Fanto. 2017. Bound to the fire: how Virginia's enslaved cooks helped invent American cuisine. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
- Hales, Steven D. 2008. Beer & philosophy: the unexamined beer isn't worth drinking. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Jackson-Beckham, J. Nikol. "Missing Ingredients — The (Incomplete) Story of Thomas Jefferson’s Unsung Brewer." Good Beer Hunting.
- Kuta, Sarah. "One of America’s First Craft Brewers Was Thomas Jefferson's Slave." Food & Wine, March 20, 2020.
- Mathews, Adam J., and Matthew T. Patton. "Exploring place marketing by American microbreweries: neolocal expressions of ethnicity and race." Journal of Cultural Geography 33, no. 3 (2016): 275-309.
- Shuford, John. "'The Tale of the Tribe and the Company Town': What We Can Learn about the Workings of Whiteness in the Pacific Northwest." Oregon Law Review 90, no. 5 (2012): 1273.
- Stanton, Lucia C. 2012. "Those who labor for my happiness": slavery at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.