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You may need to include a "DOI"/"doi" for some styles. DOI stands for digital object identifier, and if the book or article does not have an online equivalent it is unlikely to have this identifier attached to it. The DOI system began to be applied to online materials in 2000. However some materials published previously to 2000 have had DOIs applied to them retrospectively. DOIs are standard, so there would not be more than one for any article or book.
Books may have a DOI number if the publisher has requested one but most print and ebooks are not assigned a DOI.
Scholarly journal articles will generally have a DOI number. Usually this is included somewhere in the citation or found somewhere on the article at the top or bottom of the page.
Newspaper and Magazine articles generally do NOT have a DOI number assigned. You may try CrossRef query to see if there is one but generally these types of sources are not given a DOI.
The CrossRef service, http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/ offers a free DOI look-up “guest” form for determining if an article has a DOI. This may be useful when a DOI was not included in the citation or is not printed on the article.
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