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Alternatives: an aspect of replacement, reduction and/or refinement applied to minimize animal pain and distress, consistent with research goals.
Refinement: ways to reduce animal pain and/or distress within the study.
Reduction: ways to reduce the number of animals that are used for the study.
Replacement: ways to remove animals from the research to achieve scientific goals.
Literature Search: specific requirement of USDA/APHIS Policy #12. Implied requirement of the U.S. Government Principles, OLAW and The Guide.
Can be used in conjunction with expert consultations, workshops, and other sources to demonstrate research beyond the investigator’s laboratory, for additional and comparative information prior to starting work with animals.
Key words: words that are specific to the study. They describe both the animals and aspects of the research that may cause pain or distress.
Databases: electronic publication collections. There are many that cover specific subject areas. It’s unlikely that one database will have all alternatives related to a study.