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FW 255: Field Sampling

Task 3: Incorporating Background Knowledge

Review the information on the Reading, Writing, & Citing tab. For your assignment, you will need to correctly cite three articles you have downloaded (1 can be the species account) that are relevant as you refine your project design to address your research question. 

For this assignment, we will use JWM (Journal of Wildlife Management). Here are a few brief examples of how to cite common sources using the JWM style. Review the information in the "Citing with the Journal of Wildlife Management Style" box below for more in-depth explanations:

Journals articles

Bélisle, M., and A. Desrochers. 2002. Gap-crossing decisions by forest birds: an empirical basis for parameterizing spatially-explicit, individual-based models. Landscape Ecology 17:219–231.

Cox, W. A., F. R. Thompson III, B. Root, and J. Faaborg. 2012. Declining brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity. PLoS ONE 7(10):e47591.

Miller, M. R. 1986. Molt chronology of northern pintails in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:57–64.

Note: Issue numbers are included only if the pages of each issue are numbered separately.

Theses and dissertations

Breitwisch, R. J. 1977. The ecology and behavior of the red-bellied woodpecker, Centurus carolinus (Linnaeus; Aves: Picidae), in south Florida. Thesis, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA. 

Web citation

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2017. All About Birds, Peregrine falcon page. <>. Accessed 30 July 2019.

Citing with the Journal of Wildlife Management Style

The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) author guidelines outlines the rules for creating in-text citations and the Literature Cited section.

Many journals have their own style. To appropriately follow the style, you have to match their punctuation, capitalization, and order. It can feel tedious. But using the style of your discipline helps it make you look like you know what you're doing.

Unfortunately, many online citation generators (e.g., Citation Machine, EasyBib, or Zotero) make mistakes in the JWM style. Take the time to make sure your citations are correctly formatted.

Basic rules

First, to correctly format a citation in JWM style, you need to know the type of source.  But there are certain rules that apply to all JWM citations in your reference list:

  • Reference lists are alphabetized by the first author's last names.
  • Format each entry in your reference list using a hanging indent.  This means that every line after the first line is indented 1/2 inch.
  • Most titles (article titles, chapter titles, web page titles, or book titles) should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalized, and all subsequent words should be written in lower case (with the exception of proper nouns).  

EXAMPLES: Elk of North America: ecology and management

or Characterization of the North American beaver

  • Journal titles should be written with every major word capitalized.  

EXAMPLE: Journal of Wildlife Management

  • Do not italicize or use quotes around titles.

Reference List Examples

Here are the pieces that are needed for all JWM citations. Note that for journal articles, volume and page number are needed.*





Journal citation formatted in JWM style with components labeled



Note that for books, the publisher and place are needed.

Book citation formatted in JWM style with components labeled

*Many citation styles use both a volume and issue number. However, the JWM style only asks for an issue number if the pages of each issue are numbered separately. This is rarely done - most journals start numbering the pages of the subsequent volume in a particular year right where they left off from the previous issue. For example, the first page number in volume 2 might be 131.

Example of a journal article from an online-only journal like PLOS:

Note - instead of a range of page numbers just one electronic page number is given.

Example of a journal article with three or more authors:


In-Text Citation Examples:

JWM uses a parenthetical in-text citation containing author(s) last name(s) and publication year.

1 author

(Ripple 2014)

If the author(s) is named in the sentence, only include the publication year in the parenthetical citation. Always include the period to end the sentence after the last parentheses. Ripple found that many carnivores are at risk and heavily managed by humans (2014).
2 authors

Include both authors' last names

(Bankston and Meador 2015).

3 or more authors

Use the first author's last name followed by et al. to indicate other authors.

(Foster et al. 2019).

For more information