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FW 107: Orientation to Fisheries and Wildlife

Using a Citation Style

Use the the Journal of Wildlife Management style described below for your FW 107 assignments.

Using a consistent citation style helps other people find your references more easily and makes you look like a smart researcher.

Citing with the Journal of Wildlife Management Style

The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) author guidelines outlines the rules for creating in-text citations and the Literature Cited section.

Many journals have their own style. To appropriately follow the style, you have to match their punctuation, capitalization, and order. It can feel tedious. But using the style of your discipline helps it make you look like you know what you're doing.

Unfortunately, many online citation generators (e.g., Citation Machine, EasyBib, or Zotero) make mistakes in the JWM style. Take the time to make sure your citations are correctly formatted.

Basic rules

First, to correctly format a citation in JWM style, you need to know the type of source.  But there are certain rules that apply to all JWM citations in your reference list:

  • Reference lists are alphabetized by the first author's last names.
  • Format each entry in your reference list using a hanging indent.  This means that every line after the first line is indented 1/2 inch.
  • Most titles (article titles, chapter titles, web page titles, or book titles) should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalized, and all subsequent words should be written in lower case (with the exception of proper nouns).  

EXAMPLES: Elk of North America: ecology and management

or Characterization of the North American beaver

  • Journal titles should be written with every major word capitalized.  

EXAMPLE: Journal of Wildlife Management

  • Do not italicize or use quotes around titles.

Reference List Examples

Here are the pieces that are needed for all JWM citations. Note that for journal articles, volume and page number are needed.*





Journal citation formatted in JWM style with components labeled



Note that for books, the publisher and place are needed.

Book citation formatted in JWM style with components labeled

*Many citation styles use both a volume and issue number. However, the JWM style only asks for an issue number if the pages of each issue are numbered separately. This is rarely done - most journals start numbering the pages of the subsequent volume in a particular year right where they left off from the previous issue. For example, the first page number in volume 2 might be 131.

Example of a journal article from an online-only journal like PLOS:

Note - instead of a range of page numbers just one electronic page number is given.

Example of a journal article with three or more authors:


In-Text Citation Examples:

JWM uses a parenthetical in-text citation containing author(s) last name(s) and publication year.

1 author

(Ripple 2014)

If the author(s) is named in the sentence, only include the publication year in the parenthetical citation. Always include the period to end the sentence after the last parentheses. Ripple found that many carnivores are at risk and heavily managed by humans (2014).
2 authors

Include both authors' last names

(Bankston and Meador 2015).

3 or more authors

Use the first author's last name followed by et al. to indicate other authors.

(Foster et al. 2019).

For more information

Using Citations in Your Writing

The previous modules on this page talked about how to format your citations at the end of your paper. But even more important is knowing how to use citations in your paper. Here is a tip and an example of how to do that:

Tip: It is best to summarize literature in your own words; however, if you do use any part of a sentence directly from an author, you must correctly cite the material within your paper.

Example: A major consequence of land management practices and development in the riparian zone, floodplain, and land margins had been the simplification and fragmentation of fish habitat (Reeves and Sedell 1992).