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IACUC: The 3Rs and the Literature Search

Suggested Keywords for Searches

In addition to searching for research similar to your own, you will need to look for literature that mentions alternatives involving reduction, refinement, and replacement of animals in laboratory research. The University of North Carolina Health Sciences Library has compiled the below list of keywords; note that since keywords for reduction and refinement overlap by quite a lot, these areas are combined.

Reduction and Refinement

          Adverse
Analgesic, hypnotic, sedative, tranquilizer
Anesthesia, anaesthesia
Anxiolytic
Assay, technique, method, procedure
Enrichment (behavioral, behavioural, environmental)
Experimental design
Handling, housing, husbandry, caging
         

Invasive, non-invasive
Monitoring device
Positive reinforcement
Postoperative, postsurgery
Reduction, refinement
Restraint, restrict, immobilize
Train, educate, teach, instruct
Welfare, pain, stress, distress

Replacement

          Algae, fungus, hydra, plant
Anesthesia, anesthesia, anaesthesia
Animal testing alternatives, alternative
Anxiolytic
Artificial intelligence system, AI
Assay, technique, method, procedure
Autopsy, biopsy
Bacteria, microorganism, protozoan, single-celled organism, yeast
Cadaver
Cell, cell line, cellular
Computer aided instruction, computer assisted instruction, CAI
Culture (cell, tissue, organ)
Digital imaging
Environmental enrichment
Fish, cephalopod
Insect, invertebrate
          Isolated (cell, tissue, organ)
Mannequin, manikin, manikin
Membrane, organ, organelle, slice, tissue, tissue equivalent
Model (animal, cadaveric, interactive, mathematical, statistical, theoretical), modelling
Physicochemical systems
Plastination
Prediction
Replacement, surrogate
Simulation (computer)
Software
Structure - activity relationship
System
Train, educate, teach, instruct
Video
Virtual (surgery, reality)
Vitro (AND method, model, technique)