U.S. State Department Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets - include facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations of independent states, some dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty.
United Nations - Human Development Reports
United Nations Development Programme (works best in IE)
CIA World Factbook - Up-to-date information on the countries of the world, with brief information on each country's history, geography, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, and demographic characteristics.
Country Studies - from Library of Congress. Presents a description & analysis of the historical setting & the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.
Foreign Governments - Northwestern University created this quick guide to departments and agencies of foreign governments.
Foreign Governments Resources - University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries-created guides arranged by subject.
A sampling of the wealth of information available from the United Nations website:
UN Homepage - Gateway to the UN website and all its various sub-organizations
Official Documents of the United Nations (ODS Search) - full-text access to all types of UN documents, starting in 1993.
UN Documents (Documentation Centre) - General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Secretariat, International Court of Justice, and Trusteeship Council documents
UNdata - single entry point for searching 27 UN databases